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ii         THE CHURCH OF S. JOHN OF THE STUDION       43
his town busy copying the Scriptures. A good monastic scriptorium rendered an immense service ; it did the work of the printing-press.
Yet, notwithstanding all restrictions, men could be happy at the Studion. One of its inmates for instance congratulates himself thus on his lot there,  No barbarian looks upon my face ; no woman hears my voice. For a thousand years no useless (aTrpa/crog) man has entered the monastery of Studius ; none of the female sex has trodden its court. I dwell in a cell that is like a palace ; a garden, an oliveyard, and a vineyard surround me. Before me are graceful and luxuriant cypress trees. On one hand is the city with its marketplace ; on the other, the mother of churches and the empire of the world.'1
Hymnology was likewise cultivated at the Studion, many hymns of the Greek Church being composed by Theodore and his brother Joseph.
Two abbots of the monastery became patriarchs : Antony (975),2 and Alexius (ro25),3 the latter on the occasion when he carried the great relic of the Studion, the head of John the Baptist, to Basil II. lying at the point of death.4
At least as early as the reign of Alexius I. Comnenus, the abbot of the Studion held the first place among his fellow-abbots in the city. His precedence is distinctly recognised in a Patriarchal Act of 1381 as a right of old standing.5
The spirit of independence which characterized the monastery did not die with the abbot Theodore. The monks of the Studion were the most stubborn opponents of the famous Photius who had been elevated to the patriarchal throne directly from the ranks of the laity/and in the course of the conflict between him and the monks during the first
r&giements, des triodions et autres livres.* Many members of the Studion were Russians.
1  Marin, De Studio, p. n.    See Marin, Les Moines de Constantinople, for the monastic institutions of the city in general.
2  Cedren. ii. p. 147.                    3 Hid. p. 212.                    4 Ibid. p. 479.
6 Ada et diplomata patriarchatus Constantinop. t. ii. p. 12  & ra& tepctis re /col ffvvoSuctus crvv\etiff<n *   Trp&rov ^v y&p Trdvruv rbv ^pxi-fJiapSpirTjv TU>V IZrovdlov teal